1.  Transport is needed for the movement of goods for trade
  2.  Transport is needed for the movement of people.
  3. Transport is needed for bringing about unity in diversity.

All forms or modes of transport have made themselves felt in different parts of India.



Roads in transport are important because of the following: —

  1. Road transport carry goods and people over short and medium distances.
  2. Road transport are cheap and easy to maintain.
  3. Road transport can be constructed over hilly and rugged areas.
  4. Road transport act as feeders to railway transport.
  5. Road transport are more flexible and most places are accessible by roadways.
  6. Perishable commodities such as milk, vegetables, fruits, etc. are carried faster by road transport than rail transport.


  1. Road transport are not suitable for very long distances.
  2. Heavy commodities such as coal and iron cannot be transported easily by road transport.
  3. Increased number of motor vehicles in road transport is leading to increased air pollution.
  4. Road transport are more expensive than railway transport.



  1. National Highways—roads in transport that connect state capitals, important towns and ports:
  • National Highway No. 1 in road transport or Sher Shah Suri Marg connects Delhi to Amritsar.
  • National Highway No. 2 in road transport connects Kolkata to Delhi.
  • National Highway No. 6 in road transport connects Kolkata to Mumbai.
  1. State Highways—roads in transport that connect state capitals with district headquarters and major towns.
  2. Major district roads in road transport.
  3. Minor district roads in road transport.

On the basis of importance of roads in road transport, the NHDA has connected Delhi-Mumbai-Chennai-Kolkata- Delhi by a 6 lane superhighway in road transport called the Golden Quadrilateral.

The North-South Corridor in road transport between Srinagar and Kanyakumari, and the East-West Corridor in road transport between Silchar and Porbandar are the other quick transport roadways.

Expressways  in road transport have been constructed between important towns to ensure smooth and quick travel, e.g., Mumbai- Pune, Kolkata-Durgapur.

The north-eastern states lack good roads for transport because of difficult terrain, thick forests and backward economy.



The first railway transport was introduced in 1853 betw een Mumbai and Thane.

Factors Favoring Constructions of Railway Lines in rail transport.

  1. Flat, level lands facilitate the construction of rail transport.
  2. High density of population help in the construction of rail transport.
  3. Rich agricultural potential facilitate the construction of rail transport. Railway lines for rail transport are absent in plains prone to floods, the rugged Himalayan Mountains and the sandy areas of Rajasthan.

Problems with Rail Transport

  1. Railways in rail transport operate on three different gauges.
  2. Passengers in rail transport have to change trains from place to pace.
  3. Rail transport and road transport should be integrated and coordinated for successful operation of different modes of transport.



Water transport is cheapest means of both passenger he  transport and cargo transport. However, water transport is not comparable with the other modes of transport because of its slow speed.


  1. A regular flow, sufficient water affects water transport.
  2. There should be sufficient depth of water for water transport.
  3. There should not be any sharp bends, waterfalls and cataracts in the rivers course for constructing water transport.
  4. The river in the water transport should not flow too fast.
  5. There should be sufficient demand for water transport along the line.

Not all rivers of India are navigable for construction of water transport. India has a fairly long coast line to develop her coastal waterways or water transport. 12 major ports and 184  intermediate and minor ports along the coastlines are served by coastal waterways in water transport.



Advantages of air transport

  1. The fastest mode of transport is the air transport.
  2. Air transport is free of physical barriers such as difficult mountainous terrain.
  3. It is possible to reach the remotest of places by air transport.

Disadvantages of air transport

  1. Air transport has limited carrying capacity.
  2. The costs of air transport and other services are all very expensive.
  3. The weather can at times hamper smooth transport.

All airports under air transport are managed by the transport company named as Airports Authority of India—the AAI. India’s International connectivity is maintained by Air India. India has 4 main international airports out of 7, and a host of many smaller domestic airports under air transport.


The transport industry has now become one of the important areas where new technological advancement takes place. In the future transport system we will see cars that will drive themselves along pre determined routes.

Trains in the future transport system, will use new magnetic rail system.

In the future transport an amazing ‘hyper loop’ train with speed of 800 miles per hour will be seen.

    The future transport innovation will be through subways.

     Stronger Global Positioning System (GPS) will come up with the future transport system.

    Water fueled car will be seen in the future transport system.

    High speed rail network as future transport will transport passengers over 200 miles.

This future transport system will increase the level of development of vehicle Transport Company, truck Production Company. This future transport system is set to happen within the next coming years.

Thanks to the transformative transport technologies, that will us to the above proposed future transport system.


  1. Why is transport important in a country like India?

Ans:   India is a country with vast distances and a very large population. There is need for exchange of goods and commodities as well as to bring different people together. Therefore transport is important in India.

Q.2. Give two advantages of good roads in road transport.

Ans: Roads are important as they help in the transport of goods and transport of people over short and medium distances.

Q.3. Mention two advantages of road transport over rail transport.

Ans: Roads are more flexible than railways. Roads can transport perishable commodities faster than railways.


Q.4. What is the Golden Quadrilateral?

Ans: The National Highways connecting Delhi- Mumbai-Chennai-Kolkata-Delhi by a 6-lane superhighway is the Golden Quadrilateral.

Q.5. What are ‘expressways’ in road transport? Give two examples of ‘expressways’. Why have they been constructed in road transport?

Ans. Expressways are 6-lane highways constructed to ensure smooth and swift travel between important towns.


  • Mumbai-Pune Expressway.
  • Kolkata-Durgapur expressway.

Expressways in road transport have been constructed to ensure swift movement between important cities.

Q.6. Give reasons to explain why maximum roads are found in the northern plains.

Ans. (i) That flat rolling plains allow easy construction of road transport.

(ii) The High density of population ensures a continuous high a demand of road transport.

(iii) The fertile soils present means there are a large variety of goods which need to be exchanged.

Q.7. Which was the first railway line in India?

Ans. The first railway line started in India was between Mumbai and Thane.


Q.8. Mention three problems faced by the Indian Railways in rail transport.

Ans. (i) The flow of goods and passenger is hampered because it operates on different gauges and the shift from one to another gauge becomes a time consuming and expensive affair.

(ii) Perishable goods cannot tolerate a slow-moving mode of rail transport.

(iii) Rail traffic has increased in rail transport. It becomes difficult for the old tracks to carry the increased load and accidents are frequent.

Q.9. Give four factors that affect water transport.

Ans. (i) Regular flow and sufficient water in the river.

(ii) The presence of waterfalls, cataracts and sharp bends along the river’s course.

(iii) Sitting of the river bed reduces the depth and creates problems for the water transport.


Q.10. Give reasons to explain why water transport has not developed in the peninsular rivers.

Ans. (i) The southern or peninsular rivers are seasonal.

(ii) Because of the plateau nature of the surface, the rivers are swift flowing.

(iii) The rivers have insufficient depth.


Q.11. What are the advantages of waterways?

Ans. Waterways are the cheapest means of transport for bulky and heavy loads. There is also no need for the construction of waterways, as they use existing routes, e.g. rivers and seas.


Q.12. Mention some major disadvantages faced by air transport.


(i) Air transport is expensive.

(ii) Air transport has limited carrying capacity. It suffers from lack of space, both for passengers and goods.

(iii) Weather conditions can also hamper air transport.

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