The Basic Structures of a Living Plant



1)   What is the aerial part of plant known?

Ans.  Shoot system.

2)   What is the underground part of plant known?

Ans.  Root system.

3)   Where do you find the taproot system?

Ans. Generally the taproot system is found in dicot plant.

4)   Give some examples of taproot system.

Ans. Carrot, radish, cabbage, rose, mango, banyan etc.

5)   Where do you find the fibrous root system?

Ans. Generally fibrous root system is found in monocot plant.

6)   Name some plants having fibrous root system.

Ans. Rice, Wheat, Bamboo, Sugarcane, Grass etc.

7)  Name the root which helps mangrove plant breathe?

Ans.  Pneumatophore.

8)   Fill in the blanks: –

A plant body consists of the ___ system and _______ system.

Ans.   Root ; shoot.

9)  What type root the grasses have?

Ans.  Fibrous root.

10) Choose the correct answer: –

Tap root is broader at the base and tapering at —- (Node/Apex/Internode/Surface)

Ans.  Apex.

11)  What are the functions of the leaf?

Ans. Photosynthesis, Gaseous exchange and Transpiration

12) Name of the slender, wiry, coiled modified structure of leaf.

Ans. Tendrils which help to provide support climbers.

13)  Name the modification of leaf which helps in protection of plants.

Ans. Spines.

14)  Which plant reproduces by leaf?

Ans. Bryophyllum and Begonia.

15) Name the tiny pores present in the surface of leaf.

Ans.  Stomata.

16) Name different types of scale leaf with Example.

Ans. Different types of scale leaves are:

a)Dry and papery scale leaf: Potato and ginger. b) Fleshly and store food: Onion and garlic.


1)  What is tap root system?

Ans.  The main root and its branches are together called tap root system.

2)  What is fibrous root system?

Ans. Cluster of fine roots coming out from the base of the stem is called fibrous root system.

3)   List the modification of root.

Ans.  Modification of the root are: –

i) Storage of food

ii) Support of plant

iii) Breathing

4)Which roots are modified for storage of food?

Ans.  Some roots modified to store food by becoming fleshy and thick.e.g. Carrot, Beet, Radish.

5)  How does roots give support to the plants?

Ans. Some roots are specially made for provide support to the plant like-

i) Prop root as it is found in Banyan tree.

ii) Stilt root as it is found sugar cane.

6)  How do root help in breathing in plant?

Ans. In estuaries soil is saturated with salt so soil contains less oxygen. Plants growing in this region like Rhizophora have special roots come out of soil which contains pores for breathing named as Pneumatophore.

7)  What are the types of buds found in stem?

Ans. Stem bears buds at various locations. Buds growing at the apex of the stem or its branches are called Terminal buds or apical buds. Buds also grow at the function of a leaf and the stems are called Axillary buds.

8)  Write about another types of buds according to their origin.

Ans. According to the type of origin buds are of two kinds – Vegetative and floral. Branches and leaves grow from vegetative buds; white flowers grow from floral buds.

9)  What is node?

Ans. Stems have joints called nodes from which leaves and branches arise.

10)  What is internode?

Ans. The position of the stem between two nodes is called internode.

11)  What is lamina?

Ans. The wide, flat green portion of the leaf is called the lamina or leaf blade.

12)  What is petiole?

Ans. The thin portion of the leaf by which it is joined to the stem is called the petiole or stalk.

13)  What is the extended part of petiole into leaf blade?

Ans. Midrib is the extended part of petiole into leaf blade.

14)  Name two types of venation.

Ans. Two types of venation are Reticulate venation and Parallel Venation.

15)  In which plants stem  stores food ?

Ans. Some underground stems like potato, ginger, turmeric, garlic act as storage of food.

16)  Other than learning fruit, flower, leaf, branch, what are the other works stem does?

Ans. Some stems are modified to do following functions like a) Storage of food b) Support c) Preparation of food.

17)Which plant stem helps in support?

Ans. In grape vine the stem is converted into tendril to support the climber.

18)  Which plant is having stem doing photosynthesis?

Ans. Some herbaceous plant  contains green stem containing chlorophyll (e.g. mustard, grass etc.) which can prepare food by photosynthesis.

19)  Why is potato stem, not root?

Ans. Potato is grown underground. New plants are grown from it but potato has bud on its surface which is called eye from which new plant is grown. Bud is present only in stem, not in root that is why potato is stem, not root.

20)  What are veins?

Ans. The thin lines arising from the petiole or the midrib and spreading across the leaf are called veins.

21)  What is alternate arrangement of leaf?

Ans. When only one leaf grows from each node and consecutive leaves are arranged in alternate order then it is called alternative arrangement, e.g. Sunflower and China rose.

22)  What is opposite arrangement of leaf?

Ans. When two leaves grow from each node and are arranged opposite each other, the arrangement is called opposite arrangement. e.g. Guava, Basil and Calotropis or Madar.

23)  What is circular arrangement of leaf?

Ans. When three or more leaves grow from each node forming a whorl, this arrangement is called circular or whorled arrangement. e.g. Oleander and Devil tree.

24)  What is scale leaf? What is its’ function?

Ans. A scale leaf is a  modification of leaf which is small and without stalk and it is  membranous in structure.

It protects the bud that it bears in its axil.

25)  How does sundew plant trap insects?

Ans. In sundew the leaves have tentacles that secrete a sticky fluid. Droplets of this fluid glitter in the sun like dew drops. Insects are attracted by these droplets and are trapped by the tentacles.


1)  Write two functions of root.

Ans.  Functions of root are: –

  • They grow in the soil to fix the plant firmly to the ground.
  • They absorb water and minerals from the soil. Plants use these  raw materials to do photosynthesis for manufacturing food.

2)  Write the function of the stem.

Ans.  Function of stem are: –

a) The stem holds the plant upright and supports the branches.

b) The stem carries water and minerals from the root to the leaves and distributes food to all parts of the plant.

c) Stems bears leaves, buds, flower and fruit.

3) How does stem help plant bearing leaf and flower?

Ans. Stem bears leaf, flower, fruit, buds etc. and helps to spread them out so that they can function properly.  e.g. It helps to spread out the leaves in such way that they get maximum possible sunlight and air.

Stem contains flowers in such a way that insects can easily be attracted by sweet fragrance and colour. So they sit over flower to make pollination procedure easier.

4)  What are the types of the stem?

Ans. There are various kind of stem: –

  • Trunk: Some trees have thick, hard, strong stem -e.g. Mango, Neem.
  • Shrub: – Some plants have hard, woody stem but less thick and stronger than trunk of trees. e.g. Tulsi, China rose.
  • Herbs: – This type of plants have soft, green but erect stem e.g. Mustard.
  • Climbers: – This type of trees have weak, green stem but it cannot stand upright.e.g. Pumpkin.

5)    What is axil?

Ans. In the stem buds are grown at the base of stem or oxygen of stem. It is a joint between branch and stem. Buds may be terminal or axillary. Terminal buds are grown at the apex of stem. Axillary are grown at the function of  leaf and stem. The angle between a leaf and a stem is called an Axil.

6)  Differentiate between two types of venation.


Characters Reticulate Venation Parallel Venation
a)    Definition Veins spread out in all directions from the midrib forming a kind of network. The veins run parallel to each other.
b)    Occurrence Found in Dicot plant. Found in monocot plant.
c)     Example Mango, china rose, banyan. Grass, rice, banana.

7) How are Simple leaves and Compound leaves different each other? Explain with example.


Characters Simple leaves Compound leaves
a)    Type of leaf blade Simple leaf has a single leaf blade. Compound leaf blade is cut down to the midrib or to the petiole.
b)    Number of leaf lets Single, sometimes blade may be cut to any depth, but not down to midrib. Many leaflets are present.
c)     Example Mango, Peepal leaf. Rose, Neem, Gulmohar.

8)  How does venus flytrap catch the prey?

Ans. The leaf of the venus flytrap is folded along the midrib so that its two halves can open and close like jaws. When an insect touches the hairs on the leaf, the ‘jaws’ close over it and grab it. In this way venus flytrap catches the prey.

9) How is leaf of pitcher plant used for catching insect? Explain.

Ans. The pitcher plant modifies it’s leaf into a pitcher shaped structure which contains a lid. The lid closes as soon as an insect enters the pitcher. The pitcher shaped leaf contains a sticky liquid that makes the insect slide down its wall. The insect then drowns in the liquid and is digested. In this way leaf of pitcher plant is used for catching insects.






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