The Indus Valley Civilisation
Short – Answer Questions
1) Which are the two important sites of the Indus Valley.
Ans.] Two important sites of the Indus Valley Civilization are Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro.
2) Why is the Indus Valley Civilization sometimes also known as the Harappan Culture?
Ans.] The Indus Valley Civilization is sometimes called the Harappan Culture because the first and the best example of the Indus Valley Civilization was found at Harappa.
3) What is the approximate extent of the Harappan Culture?
Ans.] The approximate extent of the Harappan Culture is from Ropar in the north to the valleys of Narmada and Tapi in the south and from Meerut lying in the upper Ganga-Yamuna Doab in the east to the Suktagendor that lies on the Makran Coast of south Baluchistan in the west.
4) What is the approximate date of the Indus Valley Civilization?
Ans.] The approximate date of the Indus Valley Civilization can be specified between 3250 B.C. and 2750 B.C.
5) Give any two features of the town-planning of the Indus Valley Civilization.
Ans.] The Harappan people were primarily urban people. Two features of the town planning of the Indus people were—
- There were very wide roads and streets.
- All the streets and roads were built in a north- south and in east- west directions so that they could be cleaned automatically by the prevailing winds.
6) Name any one feature of the drainage system of Indus Valley people.
Ans.] One feature of the drainage system of the Indus Valley people were—
- The drains were covered.
7) Name any two features of the Great Bath.
Ans.] Two features of the Great Bath were—
- The Great Bath resembles a large swimming pool.
- It was used on religious festivals.
8) Why are the seals found at the excavations of the Indus Valley are important.
Ans.] Seals are important because much of the information regarding the Indus Valley people has been drawn from these seals.
9) Mention two objects of art discovered from the ruins of the Indus Valley.
Ans.] Two objects of art discovered from the ruins of the Indus Valley were—-
- The Statue of a dancing girl in bronze.
- The stone figure of a yogi clad in a shawl.
10) Name the things which tells us about the dress of the Indus Valley people.
Ans.] The things that throw light on the dress of the Indus Valley people were the figures engraved on the seals.
11) How can it be said that there was a well organised civic body of the Indus Valley people?
Ans.] The system of watch and ward at night that existed reveals the existence of a well organized civic organization.
LONG-ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
1) Give an account of the religion of the Indus Valley people.
Ans.] The Indus Valley people believed that female energy is the source of all creation. So they worshipped Mother Goddess. They worshipped Shiva Pashupati. They also worshipped tree like the papal. They also worshipped various animals.The Indus Valley people had faith in charms and amulets. Both cremation and burial of the dead bodies was prevalent. They believed in life after death.
2) Write on the layout of the townships of the Indus Valley civilization.
Ans.] The Indus Valley or the Harappan people were primarily urban people. They lived in well planned towns and took great care to look after their cleanliness. The cities were built up according to a set scheme. The roads and streets were very wide. All the streets and roads ran in a north- south and east – west directions, so that they could be cleaned automatically by the prevailing winds.
3) Describe briefly the Granary.
Ans.] The huge building known as the Great Granary has been discovered at Harappa. It is 61·5 metres long and 15·5 metres wide. It was used for storing grains.
4) How were the Dwelling Houses of the Indus Valley people?
Ans.] The dwelling houses were built on raised platforms in order to meet the danger of floods. The houses generally had an upper storey. The houses varied in size. The smallest house had one room while the bigger house looked like palaces. The houses were built of brick, lime and gypsum. Stone was not used in building houses. The houses had thick and strong walls which were plastered with bright colors. Their roofs were flat and had kachcha floors. Almost every house had wells, drains, bathrooms, kitchens and courtyards.
5) Briefly describe the Great Bath.
Ans.] The Great Bath was perhaps the most important building unearthed at Mohen-jo-daro. It resembles a large swimming pool. There are galleries and rooms all round the swimming pool. It was used on religious festivals. It was fed by a well nearby. Arrangements had been made to discharge the dirty water by a huge drain. Near the south-west corner of the Great Bath was the ‘hummam’, that is the hot air bath.
6) Write about the trade relation of the Indus Valley people?
Ans.] The people of the Indus Valley maintained a close relation with the outside world. They had trade relation with Sumer. They had also established connections with southern India, eastern India and Kashmir, as well as with certain Central Asian countries.
7) Describe the drainage pattern of the Indus Valley people.
Ans.] The Indus valley people had a high sense of health and sanitation. Each house had its own small drains. And these drains were directly connected with the street drain which ran under the main streets and below many lanes. Each house had its own soak-pit. The drains were made of mortar, lime and gypsum. They were covered. There were manholes at regular intervals for inspection. All these show that drains were constructed on scientific lines.
8) What are the seals made of? Why are they important?
Ans.] More than 2,000 seals have been found from various sites of the Indus Valley civilization. They are made of various materials such as pottery, steatite, faience, ivory etc. Much of the information regarding the Indus Valley people has been drawn from these seals.
9) What were the causes of the downfall of the Indus Valley Civilization?
Ans.] Historians have given a number of causes for the downfall of the Indus Valley Civilization. These are—-
- May be regular floods have destroyed the civilization.
- An epidemic might have killed the people.
- May be there was a climate change and the place became a desert.
- May severe earthquakes have destroyed the civilization.
- Perhaps the Aryans attacked the cities and destroyed them.