THE AGE OF THE GUPTAS
SHORT – ANSWER QUESTIONS
- Who was Fa-Hien?
Ans. Fa-Hien was a Buddhist pilgrim. He visited India during the reign of Chandragupta Vikramaditya.
- What is the importance of the Allahabad Pillar Inscription?
Ans. The Allahabad Pillar Inscription gives us ample informations regarding Samudragupta.
- What was the most important military achievement of Samudragupta?
Ans. Samudragupta’s most important military achievement was his Deccan campaign.
- How can you say that the Gupta rulers followed the policy of religious tolerance?
Ans. The Gupta rulers showed wonderful religious tolerance by giving money for building places of worship for other religions.
- Give any two achievements of the Guptas in the field of administration.
Ans. i) The empire was divided into provinces ruled by governors.
- ii) The government officials were honest.
- Name two lyrical poems written by Kalidasa?
Ans. Two lyrical poems by Kalidasa are – Meghaduta and Ritusamhara.
- Name two epics written by Kalidasa.
Ans. Kumarasambhava and Raghuvamsa are the two epics written by Kalidasa.
- Name three dramas written by Kalidasa.
Ans. Vikramorvasiya, Abhijnanshakuntalam and Malavikagnimitra are the three dramas written by Kalidasa.
- Name three poets of the Gupta period.
Ans. Kalidasa, Vishakhadatta and Shudraka were the three poets of the Gupta Age.
- Name three dramatists of the Gupta period.
Ans:.Kalidasa, Bharavi and Bhasa were the three dramatists of the Gupta Age.
- Who were the two great grammarians of the Gupta Age?
Ans. Two grammarians were Patanjali and Amar Singh.
- Name two great works of Vishakhadatta.
Ans. Two great works of Vishakhadatta were Mudra-Rakshasa and Devi Chandra Gupta.
- Give two works of Bhasa.
Ans. Two works of Bhasa – Svapana – Vasavdatta and Pratigya Yogandhrana.
- Name the great work of Brahmagupta.
Ans. The great work of Brahmagupta is Brahma Shutika Siddhanta.
- Mention one work of Shudraka.
Ans. Shudraka’s Michchakatikam.
- Name one work of Bharavi.
Ans. Bharavi wrote “Kiratarjuniya”.
- Mention on work of Dandin.
Ans. Dandin wrote Dash Kumar Charita.
- Mention one work of Bhatli.
Ans. Bhatli wrote “Ravana Vadha”.
- What is the importance of the ‘Panchatantra’?
Ans.Vishnu Sharma wrote these fables to preach art of Statecraft to disinterested princes.
- Name two centres of learning during the Gupta period.
Ans. Nalanda and Taxila universities were the two centres of learning during the Gupta Age.
- How can you say that art and architecture made a great progress in the Gupta period?
Ans. A large number of beautiful temples with the Shikhara Symbol were built during this period which show the great progress in art and architecture.
- Name the important sciences that flourished in the Gupta period.
Ans. Astronomy, Medicine, Mathematics, were the important sciences that flourished in the Gupta Age. Botany, Physical Geography etc. were also there.
- Who were the two great physicians of the Gupta period.
Ans. Two great physicians were Vaghabhatta and Dhanavantari.
- Name the great astronomer of the Gupta period after whose name an Indian satellite was named?
Ans. Aryabhatta is the astronomer after whose name the Indian satellite was named.
- Name the three great astronomers and mathematician.
Ans. The greatest mathematicians and astronomers of this period were Aryabhatta, Varahamihira and Brahmagupta.
- Give the names of three Scientists of the Gupta period?
Ans. Aryabhatta, Varahmihira and Brahmagupta were the three scientists of the Gupta period.
- Gives the names of any two works of Aryabhatta.
Ans. Two great works of Aryabhatta are “Aryabhattiya”and “Sruya Siddhanta”.
- Name two great works of Varahamihira.
Ans. Two works of Varahamihira are ‘Brihat Samhita’ and ‘Panch Siddhantika’.
- What were the two features of the architecture of the Gupta Period?
Ans. Two features of the architecture are: –
i) A large number of beautiful temples were built with the Shikhara Symbol.
ii) There were stone cut and brick cut temples built.
30.Name two famous temples of the Gupta period.
Ans. Two famous temples were the Vishnu Temple at Deogarh and the Brick Temple at Bhitrigaon.
- Give two main features of the Vishnu Temple at Deogarh?
Ans. Two striking features of the Vishnu Temple at Deogarh are –
i) It is a stone cut temple, that is made from stone .
ii) On the panel of its walls appear some sculptures.
32.Give two main features of the Ajanta paintings?
Ans. Two features of the Ajanta paintings are: –
i) Beautiful frescos are found.
ii) These frescos are excellent in their design and colour.
33.Give two main features of the Gupta sculpture.
Ans. Two features of the Gupta sculpture are –
i) A large number of images and sculptures are made depicting scenes from Buddha’s life.
ii) Terracotta Figures were also sculpted.
34.What are the best specimens of the Gupta paintings found?
Ans. The beautiful frescoes found in the Ajanta Caves are the best specimen of the Gupta paintings.
- What were the main subject of the paintings of the Ajanta Caves?
Ans. Scenes depicted from the life of Buddha were basically the main subject of the paintings of the Ajanta Caves.
- Why are the paintings of Avalokiteshvara Padmahari so famous?
Ans. The figure of Avalokiteshvara Padmahari bears testimony to be the best known single figure from Ajanta. This figure is most popular for its colours and designs. The face of the figure is so lifelike that it clearly reflects compassion and tenderness.
- Name a Gupta painting found in Bagh caves.
Ans. The scene depicting a procession of elephants is a well-known painting found in Bagh caves.
- How can you say that the Gupta period made great progress in the field of metallurgy?
Ans. The Iron Pillar at Delhi bears testimony of the metallurgical skill of the Guptas. After being exposed to sun, rain and storms for centuries the pillar has not got rusted.
- Who wrote the Allahabad Pillar Inscription?
Ans. Harisena, the court poet of Samudragupta, wrote the Allahabad Pillar Inscription.
- What was the main source of income of the Gupta Empire?
Ans. The main source of income of the Gupta Empire was one-fourth of the land produce.
- Who erected the iron-pillar at Mehrauli and why?
Ans. It is believed that the iron-pillar was erected by Kumargupta I to commemorate the achievements of his father Chandragupta Vikramaditya.
- How do you know that the Indians made great progress under the Guptas?
Ans. India made such great progress under the Guptas that the famous art of Gandhara was completely forgotten. The Gupta sculptures bear an exquisite beauty of execution and a high degree of skill.
- Why is the Gupta Age called the golden age in Indian history?
Ans. Gupta Age is called the golden age in Indian history because under them India saw advancement in all the Fields of culture – literature, science, sculpture, fine-arts etc. as it had not seen before.
- What was the religious practice of the Guptas?
Ans. The Guptas practised Hinduism. They worshipped Lord Vishnu. They also practised Buddhism.
LONG ANSWER QUESTION
- Explain Samudragupta’s Deccan Campaign.
Ans. Samudragupt’s most important military exploit was his Deccan Campaign. On marching towards the south, he defeated many powerful rulers. All these rulers subjugated to his mighty power. However, Samudragupta, very wisely did not annex any portion of the Deccan as it would make his empire too big to rule efficiently.
- What was the extent of Samudragupta’s empire?
Ans. The extent of Samudragupta’s empire was from river Brahmaputra in the east to rivers Yamuna and Chambal in the west and from the Himalayas in the north to the river Narmada in the south.
- What is the importance of the of the Allahabad pillar inscription?
Ans. The most important sources of information regarding Samudragupta is the inscription that is found on the Ashokan Pillar in the Allahabad. This inscription was written by Harisena, the court poet of Samudragupta and so it contains a first-hand knowledge about Samudragupta’s reign.
- Explain the conquests of Chandragupta Vikramaditya
Ans. Chandragupta II was also a great conqueror. His greatest achievement was to destroy forever the
power of the Shakas of Malwa, Gujrat and Saurashtra. He assumed the title of “Shakari” or the enemy of the Shakas.
- Explain the extent of Chandragupta Vikramaditya’s empire.
Ans. Chandragupta II laid the foundation of a vast empire which extended from the Brahmaputra river in the east to the Chenab river and the Arabian Sea in the west. His empire extended from the mighty Himalayas in the north to river Narmada in the south.
- What was the title that Chandragupta II adopted?
Ans. Chandragupta II’s greatest achievement was in the destruction of the power of the Shakas of Malwa, Gujrat and Saurashtra, forever. After this he adopted the title of “Shakari” or the enemy of the Shakas.
- Explain the achievement of the Gupta’s in the field of Medicine.
Ans. Vaghbhatta was the most distinguished physician of his period. He wrote his famous treatise “Ashtanga Hridaya” and continued the tradition of Charaka. In this period, surgeons performed operations of eye. Dhanavantari was also a great physician who had a number of important works on Ayurveda.
- What is the achievements of the Gupta’s in the field of Mathematics?
Ans. Aryabhatta, Varahamihira and Brahmagupta were the greatest mathematicians and astronomers of the period. Aryabhatta in his famous book ‘Aryabhattiya’ has taught the rules of solving problems
of Algebra, Geometry and Trigonometry. He even calculated the exact value of “Pi” and taught
how to find the area of a triangle.
- Explain the main characteristics of the Gupta sculpture.
Ans. Under the Gupta’s the famous art of Gandhara was completely forgotten. The Gupta sculptures bear testimony of an exquisite beauty of execution and a high degree of skill. Both the art and the subject chosen were completely Indian. It depicted the scenes from Buddhas life. Subjects from Puranic mythology were also taken.
- Write short note on the Ajanta Paintings.
Ans. The figure of Avalokiteshvara Padmahari is the best known art of single figure from Ajanta. This figure is known for its colours and designs. The face of the figure is so life like that it reflects compassion and tenderness which is the best characteristic feature of Padma Hari whose main ambition is to relieve human beings by taking up their sorrows. The figure is set in quite a natural setting that make it so life like.
- Write a short note on the Bagh paintings.
Ans. The paintings in Bagh caves are mostly similar, in cast to those of Ajanta. They have similar variety of designs, execution, decorative quality and secular nature. The scene showing a procession of elephants and a lovely scene of a dancer and woman musicians are very impressive composition.
- Describe the religious system of the Guptas.
Ans. The Gupta kings practised Hinduism. The Guptas worshipped Lord Vishnu. They performed religious sacrifices. The Gupta kings have liberally donated for building temples. The laid emphasis on the devotion of Vishnu through prayers and hymns. Like that of Buddhism, images of gods and goddesses began to be worshipped. Special rooms called “Deva-grihas” were constructed for the worship of the gods and goddesses.