- A) SHORT TYPE QUESTION:
- What is histology?
Ans: Study of tissue is known as histology.
- What is tissue?
Ans: A group of similar cells that perform common function and have a common origin is called a tissue.
- What is Meristematic tissue?
Ans: Tissue which is composed of a group of similar cells which have capacity to divided and form new cells is called meristematic tissue.
- What is permanent tissue?
Ans: Tissue which is derived from meristematic tissue and comprising of non-dividing cells is known as parenchyma tissue.
- What is vascular tissue?
Ans: Tissue which is responsible for the transport of water and dissolved minerals and food from one part of the plant to other is known as vascular tissue or conducting tissue.
- What are the constituents of vascular tissue?
Ans: Vascular tissue consists of xylem and phloem.
- What is the meaning of Totipotency?
Ans: Totipotency is the characteristics of capability of cells to give rise to different cell types of an organism.
- Where do you find meristematic tissue?
Ans: Meristematic tissue is found in the zone of plant where growth can take place.
- State the nature of meristematic tissue.
Ans: Meristematic tissue contains undifferentiated cells. Meristematic cells give rise to various organs of the plant and keep the plant growing.
- How does Meristematic tissue help in growth of plant?
Ans: Cells of meristems divide continuously and help in increasing the length and diameter of stem of the plant.
- State the location of Apical meristem?
Ans: Apical meristems are situated at the growing tips of roots, stems and branches.
- State the location of lateral meristem?
Ans: Lateral meristems are found between the bark and wood of trees.
- Where do you find the intercalary meristem?
Ans: Intercalary meristems are found at the base of leaves or internode e.g. stems of grasses et.
- Where do you find Parenchyma tissue?
Ans: Parenchyma tissue is found in almost all organs of plants like stem, roots, leaves, flowers, fruits etc.
- What is the structure of Collenchyma?
Ans: Collenchyma consists of cells with thick corners. Inter cellular spaces are usually absent in the tissue.
- State the location of Collenchyma.
Ans: The cells of collenchyma are located below the epidermis of dicotyledonous stem present in the midribs of dicot leaves.
- State the function of Collenchyma.
Ans: It gives strength and elasticity to the part in which it is found. It allows easy bending I various parts of a plant without actually breaking it.
- What is the structure of Sclerenchyma?
Ans: The sclerenchyma is composed of extremely thick walled cells with little or no protoplasm. The cells are highly elongated, narrow, spindle shaped and dead.
- State the location of Sclerenchyma.
Ans: Sclerenchyma occurs in abundance in stems, roots, veins of leaves and hard coverings of seeds and nuts.
- State the functions of Sclerenchyma.
Ans: Sclerenchyma provides following functions –
- i) They give mechanical strength and rigidity to the plant body.
- ii) Sclerenchyma fibres are used in the manufacture of ropes and certain textile fibres.
iii) It gives rigidity to leaf stock and leaf vain.
- Why is Complex tissue name so?
Ans: Complex permanent tissue consists of more than one type of cells which work together as a unit and perform a common function. That is why Complex tissue is named so. Xylem and Phloem are called the Complex or Vascular tissue.
- What are the content of Xylem tissue?
Ans: Xylem tissue is composed of vessels, tracheid’s fibres and xylem parenchyma.
- Which tissue provides mechanical strength to the plant?
Ans: Xylem gives mechanical strength to the plant. Phloem does not provide any mechanical strength.
- What are the contents of phloem?
Ans: Phloem is a living conducting tissue which contains different types of cells such as sieve tubes phloem fibres, phloem parenchyma and companion cells.
- Explain the function of phloem.
Ans: Phloem transports photo synthetically prepared food materials from the leaves to the storage organs and later from storage organs to the growing regions of the plant body.
- B) LONG TYPE QUESTIONS: –
- State the Meristematic tissue’s function.
Ans: Meristematic tissues show the following characteristics –
- i) The cells of meristematic tissue are similar in structure and have thin cellulose cell walls.
- ii) The meristematic cells may be spherical, oval, polygonal or rectangular in shape.
iii) The meristematic cells are compactly arranged and do not contain any intercellular space between them.
- iv) Each meristematic cell contains dense or abundant cytoplasm and a single large nucleus.
- State the functions of Meristematic tissue.
Ans: Functions of meristematic tissue are –
- i) Meristematic tissue acts as a parent tissue from which other tissues develop.
- ii) These tissues take part in growth by formation of new cells.
iii) With the help of meristems, plants continue to produce new leaves, branches of stem and root, flowers, fruits etc.
- Write short note on Permanent tissue.
Ans: Permanent tissues are formed by continuous division of the meristematic tissue. These newly formed cells elongate, mature and get differentiated into various types of permanent tissue. These cells may be dead or living. Depending upon their structure, they are classified into two types –
(a) Simple permanent tissue
(b) Complex permanent tissue.
- State the structure of Parenchyma cells.
Ans. Parenchyma contains isodiametric living cells which may be oval, round or polygonal in shape. The cells are thin walled and have intercellular spaces between them. It contains dense protoplasm. Sometimes it contains chloroplast or sometime contains large air cavities.
- Differentiate between Parenchyma, Collenchyma and Sclerenchyma.
|i) Type of cells||Living cells||Living cells||Dead cells|
|ii) Cell wall||Thin||Slightly thick||Very thick|
|iii) Packaging of cells||Loosely packed thin cells with large intercellular spaces.||Elongated and irregularly thickened at corners cells with very little intercellular spaces.||Long and narrow cells with profuse thickening at cell wall.
|iv) Content of cell wall||Made up of cellulose||Made up of pectin and cellulose||Made up of lignin.
|v) Occurrence||Present in epidermis, mesophyll tissue flower, fruit||Present below epidermis in petiole, leaves, stems||Present in the husk of coconut,
around vascular bundle, seed, nuts
|vi) Function||It provides support, storage of food||It provides mechanical support and elasticity.||It provides rigidity to leaves and strength to seed covering.|
- C) VERY SHORT TYPE QUESTION:
- Name the water conducting tissue.
- Name the food conducting tissue.
- State the function of meristem.
Ans. It helps in elongation of plant.
- State the function of lateral meristem.
Ans. It helps in increasing the thickness of stem.
- State the function of Intercalary meristem.
Ans. It helps the organ to grow in length.
- Which permanent tissues have dead cells only?
- What is Chlorenchyma?
Ans. Parenchyma and Collenchyma cells contain Chloroplast, then it is called Chlorenchyma.
- What is the function of aerenchyma?
Ans. In aquatic plant, parenchyma cells contain large air cavities which provide buoyancy. This is the function of aerenchyma.
- Which cell of xylem tissue contains only living cell?
Ans. Xylem parenchyma.
- Which cell of phloem tissue contains only dead cell?
Ans. Phloem fibres.
- D) FILL IN THE BLANKS:
- Plant tissue are of two types _____ and ______.
Ans. meristematic and permanent.
- Apical meristem is present at the ____ and _____.
Ans. Root tip and Shoot tip.
- Lateral meristem is present _____ xylem and phloem
- Parenchyma is present in ____ region of the plant.
- ______ lose their capability to divide.
- E) NAME THE FOLLOWING:
- Tissue present in the growing tip of root and stem
Ans. Meristematic tissue.
- The tissue that transports food material in plants
- The tissue that transport food material in plants
- The tissue that lacks intercellular space
Ans. Meristematic tissue.
- Content of coconut husk
- F) FILL IN THE PROPER RELATIONSHIP
- Chlorenchyma : Photosynthesis : Aerenchyma : ____
Ans. Floating of aquatic plant.
- Xylem : unidirectional: phloem : _____
- Apical meristem: increasing length: lateral meristem: ______.
Ans. Increasing girth.
- Meristem: Intercellular space: Sclerenchyma: ___
Ans. no intercellular space.
- Cell wall of parenchyma: Cellulose: Cell wall of Sclerenchyma: _____
- G) CHOOSE TH APPROPRIATE ANSWER:
- Which meristem helps in increasing length of stem and roots?
- A) Apical meristem
- B) Lateral meristem
- C) Intercalary meristem
- D) Xylem
Ans. A) Apical meristem.
- Which meristem helps in increasing the girth of a plant?
- A) Apical meristem
- B) Lateral meristem
- C) Intercalary meristem
- D) Phloem
Ans. D) Lateral meristem.
- Air-filled tissues of aquatic plants are called
- A) Collenchyma
- B) Aerenchyma
- C) Parenchyma
- D) Chlorenchyma
Ans. B) Aerenchyma
- Chlorophyll containing parenchyma tissue is called
- A) Aerenchyma
- B) Chlorenchyma
- C) Collenchyma
- D) Sclerenchyma
Ans. B) Chlorenchyma.
- Vascular bundle contains
- A) Xylem
- B) Phloem
- C) Xylem and Phloem
- D) Fibre and Sieve tube
Ans. C) Xylem and Phloem
- H) MENTION THE APPROPRIATE TERM:
- Tissue which is distributed over cortex, pith and vascular bundle.
- Tissue region which covers all outer surface of plant.
- Tissue present in stem, leaves and roots
- Mesophyll tissue adapted for photosynthesis
Ans. Palisade tissue.
- Tissue provides mechanical support and protection both.
- Which cells control function of sieve tube?
Ans. Companion cell.
- How doe spongy mesophyll help in gaseous exchange?
Ans. Spongy mesophyll is loosely packed to create air spaces for gaseous exchange.
- In which part of plant fibre is found?
Ans. Outer region of Cortex.
- What are the steps of meristem to form new organ?
Ans. Cell division, Elongation, Differentiation.
- What are the shapes of parenchyma?
Ans. Parenchyma cells are oval, round or polygonal in shape.
- I) GIVEN BELOW IS AN INCOMPLETE TABLE RELATING TO PLANT TISSUE, THEIR LOCATION AND FUNCTION. STUDY THE TABLE AND FILL IN THE BLANKS NUMBERED FROM A TO J.
|Apical meristem||A|| B
|C||Cortex and phloem||Stores food material
|D||Nodes/Internodes||Elongation of plant parts
|E||F||Increase in girth of stems and roots
Ans. A – Root tip, stem tip
B – Increase in the length of stems and roots
C – Vascular bundle
D – Intercalary meristem
E – Lateral meristem
F – Side of Roots and Stems
G – Beneath the epidermis, in the stem, petiole
H – Provides elasticity to the plant part
I – Outermost layer of plant
J – Protection, water proof character.