Types of Plant Tissues
A) SHORT TYPE QUESTION:
What is histology?
Ans: Study of tissue is known as histology.
What is tissue?
Ans: A group of cells which are having similar functions and a similar origin is called tissue.
What is Meristematic tissue?
Ans: Meristematic tissues are the group of similar cells with capacity to divide to form new cells .
What is permanent tissue?
Ans: Permanent tissues are the group of non-dividing cells which are derived from meristsematic tissues.
What is vascular tissue?
Ans: Vascular or conducting tissues are the group of cells which transport water and dissolved minerals and food prepared in leaves from one part to another part of plant .
What are the constituents of vascular tissue?
Ans: Constituents of vascular tissues are xylem and phloem.
What is the meaning of Totipotency?
Ans: The characteristics of capability of cells to form different types of cells is known as totipotency.
Where do you find meristematic tissue?
Ans: Meristematic tissue is found in the zone of plant where growth can take place.
State the nature of meristematic tissue.
Ans: Meristematic tissue contains undifferentiated cells. Meristematic tissues form different types of various organs of plants and in this way growth of plant is continued.
How does Meristematic tissue help in growth of plant?
Ans: Cells of meristems divide continuously and help in increasing the length and diameter of stem of the plant.
State the location of Apical meristem?
Ans: Location of Apical meristems are at the growing tips of roots, stems and branches.
State the location of lateral meristem?
Ans: Between the bark and wood of the tree lateral meristems are found.
Where do you find the intercalary meristem?
Ans: The location of intercalary meristems is at the base of leaves or internode e.g. stems of grasses et.
Where do you find Parenchyma tissue?
Ans:In all organs of plants Parenchyma tissue like stem, roots, leaves, flowers, fruits etc.
What is the structure of Collenchyma?
Ans: Collenchyma consists of cells with thick corners. Inter cellular spaces are usually absent in the tissue.
State the location of Collenchyma.
Ans: Below the epidermis of dicotyledonous stem and midribs of dicot leaves The cells of collenchyma are present.
State the function of Collenchyma.
Ans: It gives strength and elasticity to the part in which it is found. It helps in easy bending of different parts of a plant without breaking.
What is the structure of Sclerenchyma?
Ans: The cells of sclerenchyma is extremely thick walled with little or no protoplasm. The cells of sclerenchyma are specially structured with highly elongated, narrow, spindle shaped and dead cells.
State the location of Sclerenchyma.
Ans: Sclerenchyma occurs in abundance in stems, roots, veins of leaves and hard coverings of seeds and nuts.
State the functions of Sclerenchyma.
Ans: Sclerenchyma provides following functions –
- i) They give mechanical strength and rigidity to the plant body.
- ii) Sclerenchyma fibres are used in the manufacture of ropes and certain textile fibres.
iii) It gives rigidity to leaf stock and leaf vain.
Why is Complex tissue name so?
Ans: Complex permanent tissue consists of more than one type of cells which work together as a unit and perform a common function. That is why Complex tissue is named so. Xylem and Phloem are called the Complex or Vascular tissue.
What are the content of Xylem tissue?
Ans: Xylem tissue is composed of vessels, tracheid’s fibres and xylem parenchyma.
Which tissue provides mechanical strength to the plant?
Ans: Xylem gives mechanical strength to the plant. Phloem does not provide any mechanical strength.
What are the contents of phloem?
Ans: Phloem consists of living cells with various parts like sieve tubes, phloem fibres, phloem parenchyma and companion cells.
Explain the function of phloem.
Ans: Function of Phloem is to transport photo synthetically prepared food materials from the leaves to the storage organs and later from storage organs to the growing regions of the plant body.
B) LONG TYPE QUESTIONS: –
- State the Meristematic tissue’s function.
Ans: Meristematic tissues show the following characteristics –
- i) The meristematic cells are similar in structure and thin walled with cellulose layer.
- ii) The shape of meristematic cells are spherical, oval, polygonal or rectangular.
iii) The cells are very much compactly arranged without any intercellular space between them.
- iv) Each meristematic cell consists of dense cytoplasm throughout the surface and a single large nucleus.
- State the functions of Meristematic tissue.
Ans: Functions of meristematic tissue are –
- i) Meristematic tissue develops other tissues by continuous division.
- ii) These tissues helps in growth by forming new cells.
iii) Meristems help in producing new leaves , new branches of stem, root, fruit and flowers by division.
Write short note on Permanent tissue.
Ans: Permanent tissues are formed by continuous division of the meristematic tissue. These newly formed cells elongate, mature and get differentiated into various types of permanent tissue. These cells may be dead or living. Depending upon their structure, they are classified into two types –
(a) Simple permanent tissue
(b) Complex permanent tissue.
State the structure of Parenchyma cells.
Ans. Shape of Parenchyma cells are oval, round or polygonal and contains living cells . The cells are thin walled and have intercellular spaces between them. It contains dense protoplasm. Parenchyma cells are known as chlorenchyma which contain chloroplast or or idioblasts containing large air cavities.
Differentiate between Parenchyma, Collenchyma and Sclerenchyma.
|i) Type of cells||Living cells||Living cells||Dead cells|
|ii) Cell wall||Thin||Slightly thick||Very thick|
|iii) Packaging of cells||Loosely packed thin cells with large intercellular spaces.||Elongated and irregularly thickened at corners cells with very little intercellular spaces.||Long and narrow cells with profuse thickening at cell wall.
|iv) Content of cell wall||Made up of cellulose||Up of pectin and cellulose||Made up of lignin.
|v) Occurrence||Present in epidermis, mesophyll tissue flower, fruit||below epidermis in petiole, leaves, stems||Present in the husk of coconut,
around vascular bundle, seed, nuts
|vi) Function||It provides support, storage of food||provides mechanical support and elasticity.||It provides mechanical rigidity to leaves and mechanical strength to seed covering.|
C) VERY SHORT TYPE QUESTION:
Name the water conducting tissue.
Name the food conducting tissue.
State the function of meristem.
Ans. It helps in elongation of plant.
State the function of lateral meristem.
Ans. It helps in increasing the thickness of stem.
State the function of Intercalary meristem.
Ans. It takes part in increase in length of organ.
Which permanent tissues have dead cells only?
- What is Chlorenchyma?
Ans. Chlorenchyma are the parenchymatous and collenchymatous cells with Chloroplast capable of doing photosynthesis.
What is the function of aerenchyma?
Ans. In aquatic plants like Hydrilla, parenchyma cells contain large air cavities which provide buoyancy or helps in floating. This is the function of aerenchyma.
Which cell of xylem tissue contains only living cell?
Ans. Xylem parenchyma.
Which cell of phloem tissue contains only dead cell?
Ans. Phloem fibres.
D) FILL IN THE BLANKS:
- Plant tissue are of two types _____ and ______.
Ans. meristematic and permanent.
- Apical meristem is present at the ____ and _____.
Ans. Root tip and Shoot tip.
- Lateral meristem is present _____ xylem and phloem
- Parenchyma is present in ____ region of the plant.
- ______ lose their capability to divide.
E) NAME THE FOLLOWING:
- Tissue which are present at the growing or apical tip of root and stem
Ans. Meristematic tissue.
- The tissue that transports food material in plants
- The tissue that transport food material in plants
- The tissue that lacks intercellular space
Ans. Meristematic tissue.
- Content of coconut husk
F) FILL IN THE PROPER RELATIONSHIP
- Chlorenchyma : Photosynthesis : Aerenchyma : ____
Ans. Floating of aquatic plant.
- Xylem : unidirectional: phloem : _____
- Apical meristem: increasing length: lateral meristem: ______.
Ans. Increasing girth.
- Meristem: Intercellular space: Sclerenchyma: ___
Ans. no intercellular space.
- Cell wall of parenchyma: Cellulose: Cell wall of Sclerenchyma: _____
G) CHOOSE TH APPROPRIATE ANSWER:
1.Name the type of meristem helps in growth of length of stem and roots?
A) Apical meristem
B) Lateral meristem
C) Intercalary meristem
Ans. A) Apical meristem.
2.Which meristem helps in growing breadth of a plant?
A) Apical meristem
B) Lateral meristem
C) Intercalary meristem
Ans. D) Lateral meristem.
3.Air-filled tissues of aquatic plants are called
Ans. B) Aerenchyma
4.Chlorophyll containing parenchyma tissue is called
Ans. B) Chlorenchyma.
5.Vascular bundle contains
C) Xylem and Phloem
D) Fibre and Sieve tube
Ans. C) Xylem and Phloem
H) MENTION THE APPROPRIATE TERM:
- Tissue which is distributed over cortex, pith and vascular bundle.
- Tissue region which covers all outer surface of plant.
- Tissue present in stem, leaves and roots
- Mesophyll tissue adapted for photosynthesis
Ans. Palisade tissue.
- Tissue provides mechanical support and protection both.
- Which cells control function of sieve tube?
Ans. Companion cell.
- How doe spongy mesophyll help in gaseous exchange?
Ans. Spongy mesophyll is having a large air spaces for gaseous exchange that is why these are loosely packed.
- In which part of plant fibre is found?
Ans. Outer region of Cortex.
- What are the steps of meristem to form new organ?
Ans. Cell division, Elongation, Differentiation.
- What are the shapes of parenchyma?
Ans.Shape of Parenchyma cells are oval, round or polygonal .
I) HERE IS AN INCOMPLETE TABLE CONTAINING THE LOCATION AND FUNCTION OF PLANT TISSUES. STUDY THE TABLE AND FILL IN THE BLANKS FROM A TO J.
|Apical meristem||A|| B
|C||Cortex and phloem||Stores food material
|D||Nodes/Internodes||Elongation of plant parts
|E||F||Increase in girth of stems and roots
Ans. A – Root tip, stem tip
B – Increase in the length of stems and roots
C – Vascular bundle
D – Intercalary meristem
E – Lateral meristem
F – Side of Roots and Stems
G – Beneath the epidermis, in the stem, petiole
H – Provides elasticity to the plant part
I – Outermost layer of plant
J – Protection, water proof character.