Jainism and Buddhism
VERY SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS
Which two religions rose to prominence in the 6th century BCE?
Ans. Buddhism and Jainism were the two religions that rose to prominence in the 6th century.
What are Triratnas of Jainism?
Ans. Triratnas are Three Jewels of Jainism namely, right-faith, right knowledge and right conduct.
What are the five vows for the Jains?
Ans. The five vows of Jainism are-
- To practise chastity
Who are the Digambaras?
Ans. Digambaras are members of the Jain sect who lead an austere and hard life and even give up wearing clothes.
Who are the Shwetambaras?
Ans. Shwetambaras are members of the second Jainsect who dress in white and rule out strict austerity.
Why did Jainism not become very popular?
Ans. (i) Too many austerities, fasts and penance.
(ii) Lacked royal patronage.
(iii) No missionary zeal to spread the religion.
(iv) Extreme emphasis on ahimsa.
List two contributions of Jainism.
Ans. Two contributions of Jainism are
(i) Removed evils of Vedic religion.
(ii) Preached love and preservation of all living things by stopping animal sacrifices.
What is the meaning of ‘Buddha’?
Ans. The meaning of “Buddha “is the Enlightened One.
What is the ‘Great Renunciation’?
Ans. The ‘Great Renunciation’ is a term used to indicate the event when Goutam Buddha left his palace and kingdom in search of truth.
What is Dharma Chakra Pravartana?
Ans. Dharma Chakra Pravartana means ‘Turning of the wheel of the Law’. It is a term used to denote the first sermon delivered by Buddha in Sarnath.
What are the four noble truths preached by LordBuddha?
Ans. The four noble truths of Buddha are:
(i) This world is full of sorrows.
(ii) Desires cause sorrow.
(iii) Killing desires would kill sorrows.
(iv) Desires can be killed by following the Eight-foldPath.
What are Hinayana and Mahayana?
Ans. They are the two sects of Buddhism.
What is Nirvana?
Ans. Nirvana means salvation.
What is the karma theory?
Ans. Karma means reaping the fruits of one’s deeds.Buddha believed in karma and rebirth.
Which is the Eight-fold Path of Buddhism?
Ans. (i) Right Belief
(ii) Right Thought
(iii) Right Speech
(iv) Right Action
(v) Right Living
(vi) Right Effort
(vii) Right Recollection
(viii) Right Meditation.
List any two influence of Buddhism on social life.
Ans. Two influences of Buddhism on social life are
(i) Caste system was removed and equality was emphasized.
(ii) Doctrine of ahimsa was introduced.
When and where was Lord Buddha born?
Ans. Buddha was born in 563 BCE in Lumbini Garden in Kapilavastu.
What are the Tripitakas?
Ans. The most important religious literature of the Buddhists is called the Tripitakas.
Who built the Sanchi Stupa? When?
Ans. The Sanchi Stupa was built by Ashoka in the 3rd Century BCE.
What does the Sanchi Stupa contain?
Ans. The Stupa contains the relics of Buddha and that iswhy it is regarded as sacred by the Buddhists.
STRUCTURED TYPE QUESTION
With reference to the two religions that originated in the 6th century BCE, explain the following Questions. a) Write two similarities between Jainism and Buddhism.
Ans. Jainism and Buddhism both had no faith in yajnas, sacrifices and rituals. Secondly, both believe in the theory of karma.
b) Mention any two differences between Jainism and Buddhism.
Ans. While Jainism prescribed self-negation for its followers. Buddhism preached a normal life without any excessive pain to the body.
Secondly, while Mahavira denied the existence of God. Buddha did not deny the existence of God. He remained silent over the existence of God.
With reference to Jainism answer the following questions: – a) What is the meaning of the word Jain?
Ans. The word Jain is derived from “Jina” meaning who has conquered his senses.
b)Who was Mahavira?
Ans. Mahavira was a real founder of Jainism.
c) What is the meaning ‘Tirthankara’?
Ans. According to the Jain tradition, their religion was propagated and spread by 24 religion leaders. They are called ‘Tirthankaras’. The Jains believe in 24 Tirthankaras.
With the reference to the life and teachings of Mahavira, explain the following: a) When and where was Mahavira born?
Ans. Mahavira was born at Kundagrama near Vaishali in 540 B.C.
b) For how many years did Mahavira practise self-discipline?
Ans. Mahavira practised severe self-discipline for 12 years.
c) Give any two of his teachings.
Ans. Mahavira’s teachings: –
- Ahimsa – He believed in Ahimsa or non-injury toeveryone.
- No faith in Yajna, Sacrifice and Ritualism – He was against the performing of all these things andbelieved these to be false and useless.
With reference to Buddhism, explain: – a) The impact of Buddhism on Religion.
Ans. Buddhism had a great impact on religion –
(i) Evils of Hinduism like ‘Yajnas’, costly rituals andsacrifices were stopped.
(ii) Buddha’s followers made images of Buddha, which spread Hinduism. Idol worship began in India due to Buddhism.
(iii) Temples were built to worship the images of Buddha.
(iv) The differences between Hinduism and Buddhism led to the rise of the Bhakti cult.
b) The impact of Buddhism on Architecture –
(i) Cave temples were constructed.
(ii) Big stupas were raised on the relics of Buddha.
(iii) Chaityas and Viharas were built.
(iv) Many monasteries were built for the Buddhist monks.
a) Who was the founder of Buddhism? Where was he born?
Ans. Gautama Buddha was the founder of Buddhism. He was born in Nepal.
b) What were the teachings of Buddha?
Ans. Teachings of Buddha are as follows
- Four Noble Truths
- He remained silent about the existence of God.
- No faith on Yajnas or sacrifices.
- No faith in the caste-system.
- Man should achieve the state of ‘Nirvana’, byfollowing the eight-fold path.
- He believed in the theory of Karma and Rebirth.
- Laid great stress on moral living.
What was the impact of Buddhism on literature?
Ans. Buddhism made valuable contributions in the field of literature. Books on Buddhism were written in thousands. Of these some books like Tripitakas and the Jatakas are a literary treasure in which India takes pride even today. These books have proved of immense help in the reconstruction of ancient Indian history.